The circulating water system contains a large amount of soluble salts, mainly calcium bicarbonate Ca(HCO₃)₂. With water temperature and some other environmental changes, such as the influence of impurities in the water, unstable calcium bicarbonate rapidly decomposes to form an inorganic compound calcium carbonate salt (CaCO) that is extremely insoluble in water. Single calcium carbonate molecules have a certain weak charge polarity on a microscopic level. They are easily affected by various charged and unevenly distributed impurities in the water or equipment tube walls, and quickly aggregate and grow into flakes or even blocks. It has a mixed crystal structure. These dissimilated mixed crystals are arranged in a staggered manner. The macroscopic manifestation is extremely strong scale, which requires strong chemical acid or high-energy physical impact to peel off.

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